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## “Table of Contents” Quicklinks

**Studious stuff:**

- Worksheets and math practice
- Study on your own with online math lessons
- Writing to learn math (all ages)
- Forums where you can ask for help

**Fun stuff:**

- Online games and activities
- Math contests — grades 4-12
- General math resources — high school and up
- Math history on the Internet

## Worksheets and Math Practice

**Daily Math Review**

Three years’ worth of math review (7 assorted problems per day) for grades 6, 7, and 8 — with answers provided for the busy teacher.

**Donna Young’s Math Pages**

Worksheets, charts, drill pages, fraction manipulatives, triangular flashcards, and more — plus a great introduction to unit multipliers (also known as conversion factors).

**Free Math Worksheets from HomeSchoolMath.net**

A variety of worksheets from the author of the Math Mammoth books (and Homeschool Math Blog), with links at the bottom of the page for more freebies.

**GetSmarter.org**

Try your hand at math and science test questions, and then see how your answers compare to those from students around the world.

**MathCounts Drills by Elias Saab**

Tough online practice problems for MathCounts preparation, or simply to see if you can handle the challenge. Problems are also available one by one.

**MathCounts Toolbox **

This is a 9-page summary of the basic facts of elementary math. Go through each page, checking off all the things you know. Then try to learn *at least* one new math fact per week between now and test time.

**Math Drills Homepage**

Online mathematics tests and drills for many topics, elementary through university level.

**Math Worksheet Generators**

“Just the facts, ma’am.” Plenty of formatting choices.

**Math Worksheet Site**

My personal favorite online generator for basic math worksheets. They also offer a subscription service, if you need a wider choice of topics.

**Multiflyer**

Online or downloadable game for practicing the multiplication facts. This is the best math fact game I have seen, at a can’t-beat-it price.

**Preparation Drills for the SAT-Math Sections **

Quiz yourself online to prepare for high-stakes high school testing.

**Triangular Numbers are Everywhere!**

This worksheet from the IMSA Math Journal examines several examples of triangular numbers in mathematical problems. Can you figure out the patterns?

## Study on Your Own with Online Math Lessons

Quicklinks for easy browsing:

## Arithmetic and Other Elementary Topics

**HomeschoolMath.net**

Place value, adding and subtracting, multiplying and dividing, fractions, and more.

**Interactivate**

Lots of projects to try, mostly at the elementary to middle-school level.

**Introduction to Probability**

A short tutorial with interactive questions from Mrs. Glosser’s Math Goodies. See also: Rolling a Pair of Dice, Conditional Probability, and the Challenge Exercises. And check out **Combining Probabilities** at MathCounts Central: When more than one thing is happening in a probability problem, how do you know whether to add the probabilities or multiply them? And what happens if the events are not mutually exclusive?

**Math.com**

Basic math, everyday math, and “hot subjects” like fractions and decimals.

**Mathematics at Free-Ed.Net**

Arithmetic and pre-algebra.

**Problem Solving Strategies**

Teach your students to solve problems—by solving problems!

**Professor Pig’s Magic Math**

Cartoons, hands-on games, and mental math practice — these pdf lessons are excellent to help students understand number bonds, rather than just memorizing math facts. (Only the first two lessons are available now; more coming soon.) See also: Math Games to Download.

**Smartkiddies Math**

A complete elementary math program developed by Australian teachers. [Edited to add: This used to be free. I just noticed that they now offer a 30-lesson free trial, but regular access is $50/year per family. It’s a very reasonable price, but not as good a deal as it used to be!]

**Suzanne’s Math Lessons**

For upper-elementary and middle school.

**The Singapore Maths Teacher**

These slide shows demonstrate Singapore-style math models (also known as bar diagrams) step by step, beginning with relatively easy grade 3 word problems and working through to grade 6 stumpers. Excellent for elementary teachers who need to learn how to teach this method. See also: Problem Solving Strategies.

**Why We Don’t Divide By Zero**

Professor Homunculus of The Math Mojo Chronicles explains the mathematics of dividing by zero.

[Back to Math Lessons quicklinks.]

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## Algebra and Beyond

**College Algebra Tutorial**

Just what it sounds like. Includes practice tests.

**Dansmath Lessons**

A quick review of the basics, then on to the good stuff.

**Discovering Trigonometry**

A basic introduction to trigonometry, starting with sticks and shadows.

**HomeschoolMath.net**

High school proofs, and scroll down for geometry lessons.

**Interactivate**

Scroll down for lessons on algebra, geometry, probability, statistics, and discrete mathematics.

**Interactivate Mathematics**

(A different site from the above.) From algebra and money math to higher calculus, this website (by the author of SquareCircleZ blog) has interactive Flash-based activities that help the user to understand what is going on.

**Mathematics at Free-Ed.Net**

Scroll down for algebra and beyond.

**Math for Morons Like Us**

Pre-algebra through calculus topics. With a name like that, it has to be a fun site, doesn’t it?

**Math.com**

Pre-algebra through calculus topics.

**Math Open Reference (Geometry)**

The name of the website implies more, but all I can find for now is Euclidean geometry. Plenty of Java to play with. This site makes a great follow-up for Purplemath algebra (below)—when your geometry textbook just doesn’t make sense, look here for help. The step-by-step constructions are particularly fun.

**National Repository of Online Courses**

Algebra, introductory calculus, and AP calculus.

**Purplemath**

My favorite site for supplemental lessons in pre-algebra and algebra. When your textbook just doesn’t make sense, look here for help.

**S.O.S. Math**

Algebra, trigonometry, calculus, and much more. This site will help college students, too.

**SparkNotes Math**

Pre-algebra through calculus.

**Trig Without Tears**

“Or, How to Remember Trigonometric Identities.” How to learn and understand trigonometry without memorizing a gazillion identities. Check out the author’s other mathematics articles, too.

[Back to Math Lessons quicklinks.]

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## Writing to Learn Math (All Ages)

Quicklinks for easy browsing:

- Math journaling in general
- How to get elementary students writing about math
- Journal topics for older students
- Essays and research papers

## Math Journaling in General

**59 Writing Prompts for Math Teachers (pdf 58KB)**

Title is self-explanatory. From misterteacher.com.

**Complete List of Teacher Resources**

Especially for those teaching a writing-intensive college course, but many of the articles would be helpful for any teacher.

**How do you write a good math solution?**

“Writing math solutions can be tricky at first. It may be something that you are not used to doing when you are learning math.” See also: Typing Math.

**Logistics of Math Journals: Frequently Asked Questions (pdf 105KB)**

Tips for using math journals in the classroom, by the authors of this math journaling lesson for grades 3-5.

**Math Journals Boost Real Learning**

An article by Marilyn Burns in *Scholastic Instructor* magazine, April 2001. Math journals “help students stretch their thinking and make sense of problems,” and they can help teachers evaluate student progress.

**Math Journals For All Ages**

Benefits of math journals, 19 writing prompts, and links to more resources. See also: Mistakes + Analyze Why = Greater Understanding.

**Math Journal Form** (pdf)

Useful for definitions, brief explanations of math concepts (includes space for a diagram), or very short reflections on the day’s lesson.

**Mathematical Writing Rubric** (pdf)

Rate your writing on a scale of 1-4 in five areas.

**Power Writing in Math Class** (pdf)

A handout about paragraph construction: The writer gradually adds details to turn a bare-bones paragraph into a decent explanation.

**Scaffolding for the Math Writing (and Talking) Process** (pdf)

Sample questions for the student problem-solver, to help them figure out an answer and explain it to others.

**Talking, Writing, and Mathematical Thinking**

Click the “View a Sample Chapter/Article” link to download the first chapter, which discusses how students’ writing can lead to deeper learning.

**Using Writing in Mathematics**

When and how to introduce math journaling, and how to move from feeling-oriented, open-ended questions to more specifically mathematical thinking and writing. Heavy use of the term “metacognition,” with examples from teachers’ journal writing about using math journals.

**Writing in Mathematics: Common Objections & FAQs**

“Anytime a teacher decides to try something new, s/he is likely to have concerns. Writing in math is no exception…”

**Writing Prompts for Math Teachers**

Compare and analyze “Math Problems of the Week” from Out In Left Field, paying special attention to the “Extra Credit” questions. How can studying these examples help you improve your own math teaching? [Hat tip: Joanne Jacobs.]

**Writing to Develop Understanding**

“[An] iterative approach that includes initial writing, supportive feedback, and revision is where significant improvement in problem solving takes place.” Several articles about the Math Forum Problems of the Week program.

[Back to Math Journals quicklinks.]

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## How to Get Elementary Students Writing About Math

**30 Math Journal Prompts**

This is Catholic Mom’s idea list, organized into cards to print and cut out.

**Aunty Math: Math Challenges for K-5 Learners**

Story problem challenges, tips on problem solving, and advice for the parent or teacher. Students can write up and submit their answers.

**Math Cats: Winners of Past Math Writing Contests**

Sample essays on assorted topics by elementary and middle school students.

**Math Journals and Other Math Ideas for Primary Grade Teachers**

Journaling tips and story problems based on children’s literature for kindergarten and early elementary students.

**Math out loud!**

Talking through a math problem first helps students write about the solution.

**Mathematical Poetry**

Links to math poetry by elementary students, to inspire creativity in your kids.

**Math Story Diagramming**

Young students retell a “living math” story in pictures.

**Writing in Mathematics**

Mathwire.com‘s September 2007 Back-to-School Issue: How to use writing in an elementary math class, with several links to articles and lesson ideas.

[Back to Math Journals quicklinks.]

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## Journal Topics for Older Students

**High School Math Page**

Monthly math challenges: Write and submit your solutions.

**How to Write a Solution**

“You’ve figured out the solution to the problem — fantastic! But you’re not finished. Whether you are writing solutions for a competition, a journal, a message board, or just to show off for your friends, you must master the art of communicating your solution clearly.” From the AoPS articles page.

**MathNotations blog**

Challenging problems and investigations for grades 7-12, with an emphasis on developing conceptual understanding in mathematics. The sidebar holds a detailed topic list, making it easy to scroll down and find whatever your student needs to practice.

The Internet Wayback Machine apparently doesn’t cover this site😦**Poetry in Math Puzzles**

First, solve the four puzzle poems. Then create your own.

**Problem Solving Island**

A wide variety of puzzles, from Thinking Mathematically and other sources, plus problem solving tips and sample student journal entries. Based on Problem Solving and Computing, which can serve as a self-study course.

**Thinking Mathematically **

A book that will lead the junior-high through adult-level student step by step, using a journal to think your way through challenging math problems—including what to do when you are stuck and can’t find a solution. Many of the problems used as examples are traditional brain teasers and recreational math puzzles.

**USA Mathematical Talent Search (USAMTS)**

“As opposed to most mathematics competitions, the USAMTS allows students a full month to work out their solutions. *Carefully written justifications* are required for each problem.”

**Using Art Projects to Create a Math Adventure…**

See how a high school algebra teacher uses a math journaling project as the centerpiece of his curriculum. Photo-heavy page, but worth waiting for, even on a slow dial-up connection like mine. Students use fine-point permanent markers and quality colored pencils in artists’ sketchbooks, and then they sponge the pages of their journal with coffee for a beautiful, parchment-like effect.

**Writing Assignments in Calculus**

Assignments and sample essays for Calculus I-III, by the author of “How to Grade 300 Mathematical Essays and Survive to tell the Tale.” See also: A Guide to Writing in Mathematics Classes, and Assessing Expository Mathematics.

[Back to Math Journals quicklinks.]

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## Essays and Research Papers

**Writing for a Math Class**

Tips and sample assignments for math teachers, and advice for high school or college students writing essays — includes formatting, how to handle references, and the “Fumblerules of Grammar.”

**Writing mathematics**

The general rules of good writing apply to writing about math. See also the many pdf handouts from assorted college professors:

- A Grading Guide
- A Guide to Writing Mathematics
- A Mathematical Writing Checklist
- Common Word Errors in Writing Mathematics
- Tips on Writing in Mathematics
- Writing math in paragraph style

[Back to Math Journals quicklinks.]

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## Forums Where You Can Ask for Help

**Art of Problem Solving Forum**

For middle school and older students. There are forums for classroom basics, but most of the AoPS forums focus on working through challenging problems and preparing for math contests.

**Ask Dr. Math**

Browse the archives of the Math Forum, or ask a new question by email.

**Mrs. Glosser’s Math Forums**

Help for elementary through high school students.

**S.O.S. CyberBoard**

A topical help forum for high school and college-level mathematics, engineering, computer science, and more.

## Online Games and Activities

Quicklinks for easy browsing:

## Elementary Games and Activities

[Also look at Math history for elementary/middle-school students, below.]

**Brainwave**

A mental arithmetic quiz for early elementary students: “What is half of 10?…”

**Braintwister**

A mental arithmetic quiz for middle elementary students: “There are 35 children in a class. 16 are boys. How many are girls?…”

**Brain Teasers**

Weekly questions, with hints, for grades 3-4 and higher.

**Button Beach Challenge**

“A taster of our forthcoming *Oddsocks — The Land of the Lost* interactive web based mental maths adventure.” This addition puzzle is harder than it looks. I can’t wait to try the rest of the adventure…

**Callum’s Addition Pyramid**

“Can you open the Mummy’s Tomb?” With three difficulty levels, this will challenge any elementary student’s mental addition skills — and many adults’ skills, too!

**CSU Problem of the Week**

More weekly puzzles, elementary level. An “honor roll” is posted of students who send in the correct answer.

**Fun Mathematics Lessons by Cynthia Lanius**

A wide variety of topics for a wide range of ages.

**Math Cats**

Math explorations, crafts, homemade manipulatives, and lots of fun.

**Math Playground**

A ton of games and math activities, but the site was not loading properly the last time I visited, and it came up so slowly on my old dial-up connection that I lost patience. Worth a try, when it works.

**National Library of Virtual Manipulatives**

A treasure-chest of virtual hands-on math. Includes links to material for all ages and topics, pre-K through 12th grade.

**Nrich.maths.org**

Math puzzles and activities for all ages, with a theme that changes each month. Hints available, and solutions for past problems.

**Taxicab Treasure Hunt**

A game based on the non-Euclidean geometry of city streets.

**The Table Trees**

Practice your times tables, with a twist — it’s not always the answer that’s missing.

**Thinking Blocks**

Learn to solve word problems by modeling them with blocks. A visual approach to thinking things through.

[Back to Online Games quicklinks.]

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## Middle School (Or Junior High) Games and Activities

[Also look at Math history for elementary/middle-school students, below.]

**1000 Problems to Enjoy**

A large collection of challenge problems for grades 7-9, or for anyone who wants to play around with math and logic. Answers are in the Doc files, but don’t peek. Figure it out for yourself, and use the file only to check your work. It’s no fun when someone just gives you the answer!

**Ambleweb Function Machine**

Choose the type of problem you want to guess, or go random for more challenge. My math club kids LOVE function machines.

**Brain Teasers**

Weekly questions, with hints, for grades 5-6 and 7-8.

**CSU Problem of the Week**

More weekly puzzles, middle school level. An “honor roll” is posted of students who send in the correct answer.

**Dansmath Kids Page**

Puzzles, problems, and math in the real world.

**Fun Math by Cynthia Lanius**

A wide variety of topics for a wide range of ages.

**Head Hunters Game**

A bloody fun game for the Viking in all of us. If you enjoy that one, try the other math tricks and games at Murderous Maths.

**Hex-a-hop**

My all-time (so far) favorite logic game. “There is no time limit and no real-time elements. The objective is simply to destroy all the green hexagonal tiles on each of the 100 levels. As you progress through the game, more types of tiles are introduced which make things more difficult and interesting.” For all ages.

**Hexa-Trex Puzzle of the Day**

“Object of the game: Find a path through all the tiles to make a math equation.” Difficulty ranges from easy to quite challenging.

**How to Count to 1,023 on Your Fingers**

A Java applet teaches you to count in binary or other bases. This can extend your counting range, but “caution is advised as the number four is prone to offend onlookers.”

**Logic-Grid Brain Teasers**

I love logic grid problems, and Braingle offers *34 pages of them*. Have fun! See also: Math Brain Teasers.

**MathCaching**

Students solve mathematical problems to find hidden “boxes” on the Internet. Each box reveals clues to the location of the next one. Levels range from pre-algebra to trigonometry.

**MathCounts Student Pages**

Featuring the Problem of the Week and archives of past problems.

**MegaMath**

Math research projects for students from the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

**Multiplication: An Adventure in Number Sense**

Explore the multiplication table and discover some interesting things about how numbers work. See also: MultArt and Multiplication Models.

**National Library of Virtual Manipulatives**

A treasure-chest of virtual hands-on math. Includes links to material for all ages and topics, pre-K through 12th grade.

**Nrich.maths.org**

Math puzzles and activities for all ages, with a theme that changes each month. Plenty of interesting puzzles in the archives, too. Hints available, and solutions for past problems.

**Problems? No Problem!**

Quiz includes some geometry: “What is the name of an angle greater than 90 degrees but less than 180 degrees?…”

**Problem Solving Island**

“The inhabitants of the island are a little different from you or me. Rather than pursuing standard enjoyments, like television, aerobics, and web surfing, they spend most of their time posing and solving puzzles…”

**Taxicab Treasure Hunt**

A game based on the non-Euclidean geometry of city streets. Follow this up with more research into taxicab geometry.

**The Braindrainer**

A mental arithmetic quiz for upper elementary or middle school students: “Is 4 a factor of 106?…”

**The Fractotron**

You will have to work fast with this game. The questions are not super-difficult, but it doesn’t give you much time to think.

**The MegaPenny Project**

How many does it take to pile up a ton of pennies?

**The Totally Mental Machine**

Random numbers make a new set of problems every time: “What is 15.7 and 4.7 together?…”

**Tim’s Interactive Puzzle Solution Center**

A fun collection of “famous and other curious brain teasers” to solve online, some relatively easy and some quite challenging.

**Ratio Word Problems**

Learn to solve ratio problems by modeling them with blocks. A visual approach to thinking things through.

[Back to Online Games quicklinks.]

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## Math Contests—Grades 4-12

(Most of these require a registration fee, and most do not accept individuals to compete. Organize teams through your school or homeshool group.)

**American Mathematics Competitions**

Middle school through high school teams. Students compete individually at their own schools, then scores are compared nationally. Awards given at school and national levels. No travel required. Past tests available through the website for study and practice.

**Mandlebrot Competition**

High school teams. Students compete individually and in teams of four. Ribbons given to top four scorers at the school level, additional awards at the national level. No travel required.

**MathCounts**

Middle school teams (grades 5-8 ). Students compete individually at the school level. Each school or homeschool group may send a team of four students to a regional competition, with the top teams progressing to state and national contests (travel required). Study resources available through the MathCounts website and at these links:

- MathCounts — Ready or Not, Here It Comes
- The MathCounts Bible According to Mr. Diaz
- MathCounts Toolbox
- Last year’s school, chapter, and state-level tests
- MathCounts Drills by Elias Saab
- MathCounts Central
- Math Club: Counting 101

**Mathematical Olympiads for Elementary and Middle Schools**

Elementary (grades 4-6) and middle school (grades 6-8 ) teams. Five monthly contests during the school year, no travel required. Students compete individually in their own schools or homeschool groups—with certificates for everyone and a top-scorer trophy—and then scores are compared nationally for additional awards. Low stress and lots of fun for beginning mathletes.

**USA Mathematical Talent Search**

High school, or advanced junior high individuals. Free. Students must solve challenging problems and write well-justified solutions. Four rounds per year, five problems per round, with one month to work each set. Past problem sets available through the website for study and practice.

## General Math Resources—High School and Up

**Art of Problem Solving: Math Articles**

A variety of topics about teaching and learning math. Also check out the AoPS Wiki.

**CSU Problems of the Week**

This link takes you to the main *Problem of the Week* puzzle. There is also an Algebra in Action puzzle and other puzzles for younger students.

**Cut the Knot Interactive**

“Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles,” many of which require Java. One of my all-time favorite sites.

**Free Online Graph Paper**

PDFs galore for any graphing project.

**Geometry**

Various notes, tidbits, equations, and diagrams—2D, 3D, and more. Scroll down for polyhedra, including a link to build your own models.

**Hex-a-hop**

My all-time (so far) favorite logic game. “There is no time limit and no real-time elements. The objective is simply to destroy all the green hexagonal tiles on each of the 100 levels. As you progress through the game, more types of tiles are introduced which make things more difficult and interesting.” For all ages.

**How to Read Mathematics**

The title is self-explanatory.

**MathCaching**

Test yourself: How much of high school math do you remember? Solve mathematical problems to find hidden “boxes” on the Internet. Each box reveals clues to the location of the next one. Levels range from pre-algebra to trigonometry, with calculus under development.

**Mathematical Quotation Server**

I love quotations! No matter what I want to say, somebody else has probably already said it better.

**Mathematically Correct**

Articles about the current U.S. “Math Wars” and reviews of many math textbooks.

**Mathematics Articles by Stan Brown**

Articles about how to succeed as a math student, how to use a graphing calculator, and other topics from algebra, trig, calculus, and statistics.

**Number Gossip**

“Everything you always wanted to know about your favorite number, but were afraid to ask.”

**NYC HOLD**

More articles about mathematics education and the “Math Wars.”

**Proofs without words**

I love these!

**Recreational Mathematics**

Part of Wolfram MathWorld: games, art, humor, and more.

**The Math Forum**

“The Math Forum is a leading center for mathematics and mathematics education on the Internet.” Enough resources and links to get lost in.

**What’s Special About This Number?**

Distinctive facts about several numbers: 0-9999 the last time I looked.

**Wolfram MathWorld**

The best online reference I know for anything related to math.

## Math History on the Internet

Quicklinks for easy browsing:

- Most valuable sites
- General resources
- Math topics & significant individuals
- Specific cultures or time periods
- Math history for elementary/middle-school students

## Math History > Most Valuable Sites

**The MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive**

My favorite place to begin any foray into math history. Highlights include:

- An Overview of the History of Mathematics
- Biographies Index
- History Topics Index
- Famous curves index
- Mathematicians of the day
- A Time Line of Mathematicians

**La Habra High School’s Math History Timeline **

Math discoveries, publications, and other tidbits — from paleolithic number bones to the present.

- Pre-historic and Ancient Times 1,000,000 B.C. – 500 A.D.
- Middle Ages 500 – 1400 A.D.
- Renaissance 1400 – 1550 A.D.
- Reformation 1517-1598 A.D.
- Baroque Era 1600-1700 A.D.
- Enlightenment 1700-1789 A.D.
- Age of Revolutions 1789-1848 A.D.
- Age of Liberalism 1848-1914 A.D.
- 20th Century … 1914-present A.D.

[Back to Math History quicklinks.]

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## Math History > General Resources

**Biographies at Wolfram MathWorld**

Long, long list, and each biography is linked to explanations of the mathematician’s major discoveries.

**Biographies of Women Mathematicians**

Indexed alphabetically, chronologically, and by country of birth. Includes modern news tidbits, too.

**A Completely Inadequate Bibliography of the History of Mathematics**

“Most of the following books are aimed at the professional non-mathematician (i.e., someone to whom the land of mathematics is an interesting place to visit, but you wouldn’t want to live there).”

**Convergence**

An online magazine from the MAA: “Where mathematics, history, and teaching interact.”

**Fred Rickey’s History of Mathematics Page**

Includes Teaching a Course in the History of Mathematics and An Annotated Bibliography.

**Galileo and Einstein: Overview and Lecture Index**

Lecture notes on the history of math and physics.

**Mathematicians of the 17th and 18th Centuries**

Adapted from A Short Account of the History of Mathematics, by W. W. Rouse Ball.

**Mathematicians of the African Diaspora**

Black men and women of mathematics, in history and in the present.

**Mathematical Quotation Server**

I love quotations! No matter what I want to say, somebody else has probably already said it better.

**Math Forum History Listings**

“651 items found.” No, I have not checked them all. Go browse for yourself!

**Math History and Mathematicians Pages**

Julie Brennan at Living Math is building an index of links to biographical information, famous quotes, activities and book suggestions to accompany a homeschool math history course. [Sample lessons.] The last time I visited, she had almost finished the first year’s listings.

**Philosophy of Science**

Many assorted links to readings for a college class, including several chapters from String, Straightedge & Shadow.

[Back to Math History quicklinks.]

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## Math History > By Topic

**Abacus: The Art of Calculating with Beads**

The abacus through history, how to make and use an abacus, and classroom ideas.

**Archimedes**

“This site is a collection of Archimedean miscellanea under continual development.” See also: Prehistoric Calculus: Discovering Pi, Archimedes’ Approximation of Pi, and The Archimedes Palimpsest.

**Carl Friedrich Gauss**

Detailed biography, quotations, and more.

**Earliest Known Uses Of Common Mathematical Symbols and Words**

Research is ongoing (I found a page that had been modified last week), so don’t assume that a citation is the earliest use unless indicated as such.

**Euclid’s Elements**

David E. Joyce brings the text of Euclid’s 13 Books to life with Java applets. See also: An Introduction to the Works of Euclid.

**Famous Problems in the History of Mathematics**

This site includes problems, paradoxes, and proofs that have inspired mathematicians through the ages, plus links for further exploration.

**A Golden Sales Pitch**

“There is little evidence to suggest that the golden ratio has any special aesthetic appeal… When a myth is repeated over and over, it begins to sound like truth.”

**Historical Overview of Pi**

A brief history of , from ancient Babylon to modern computers. Lots of links, including a relationship between and the Fibonacci numbers.

**The History of Measurement**

“There were unbelievably many different measurement systems developed in early times, most of them only being used in a small locality.”

**Hypatia of Alexandria**

Lots of links, including The Primary Sources for the Life and Work of Hypatia of Alexandria. See also: Hypatia, the First Known Woman Mathematician.

- Algebra
- Analysis
- Geometry and Topology
- Numbers and Number Theory
- Mathematical Astronomy
- Mathematical Physics

**Mathematical games and recreations**

“The whole history of mathematics is interwoven with mathematical games which have led to the study of many areas of mathematics.”

**The Mathematical Problems of David Hilbert**

With a link to Hilbert’s 1900 address to the International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris, surely the most influential speech ever given about mathematics. Wolfram MathWorld has an annotated list of all 23 problems.

**MathPages History Topics**

A wide assortment of tidbits for advanced students.

**Slide Rule History**

“The slide rule has a long and distinguished ancestry … from William Oughtred in 1622 to the Apollo missions to the moon.”

**Who was Fibonacci?**

“A brief biographical sketch of Fibonacci, his life, times and mathematical achievements.”

[Back to Math History quicklinks.]

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## Math History > Cultures or Time Periods

**Ancient Africa**

Part of the Mathematicians of the African Diaspora website.

**History of Egyptian and Mesopotamian Mathematics Page**

An excellent resource for my Alexandria Jones stories.

**History of Mathematical Education**

What topics of mathematics have been taught in different cultures and time periods? Why have these changed?

**MacTutor Mathematics in Various Cultures**

- Ancient Babylonian mathematics
- Ancient Egyptian mathematics
- Ancient Greek mathematics
- Arabic mathematics
- Chinese mathematics
- Indian mathematics
- Mayan mathematics
- American mathematics
- Mathematics in Scotland

**Mathematics in Specific Cultures, Periods or Places**

A short collection of links. This site also contains: Websites relevant to the History of Mathematics.

**Mesopotamian Mathematics**

“From the earliest tokens, through the development of Sumerian mathematics to the grand flowering in the Old Babylonian period, and on…”

[Back to Math History quicklinks.]

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## Math History > For Elementary/Middle-School Students

**Adding with the Abacus**

“What did people do to save time working out more difficult problems before the calculator existed?”

**Alexandria Jones and the History of Math**

Several of my Alexandria Jones adventures involve math history. Browse down the page to see the stories I have posted, and watch for more coming soon.

**Ancient Greek Mathematics**

Selections from String, Straightedge & Shadow:

- Chapters 8, 9: Thales
- Chapters 11, 12: Pythagoras and his Theorem
- Chapter 13: Platonic Solids
- Chapter 14: The Irrationals
- Chapter 15: The Golden Mean
- Chapter 16: Archimedes
- Chapter 17: Eratosthenes

**Archimedes & Large Numbers**

A brief look at Archimedes, Avogadro, and Cantor. See Approximating Pi for an interactive demonstration, or Prehistoric Calculus: Discovering Pi for a more in-depth explanation.

**Calendars**

“Calendars were one of the earliest calculating devices developed by civilizations.”

**Egyptian Math **

Could you survive in the world of Egyptian numerals and mathematics? [Note to teachers: The Egyptian Math Worksheet Creator looks like fun!]

**Eratosthenes’ sieve**

Click on any number, and all its multiples (except the number itself) will disappear from the chart. See also: Murderous Maths Prime Numbers Page.

**Eureka! The Achievements of Archimedes**

Click “next” to read the pages one by one, or browse through the Index.

**Famous Problems in the History of Mathematics**

This site includes problems, paradoxes, and proofs that have inspired mathematicians through the ages, plus links for further exploration.

**Fibonacci Activities**

For explanations and more fun, see: Fibonacci Numbers and Nature.

**Solid Gold Gnarly Math: The Gnarly Gnews**

Free bi-monthly newsletter of math history with a twist of humor.

**History of Fractions**

“Did you know that fractions as we use them today didn’t exist in Europe until the 17th century?”

**History of Measurement**

To work effectively and share goods fairly, people had to find ways to measure their stuff. See also: Measure for Measure.

**Leonardo da Vinci Activity**

“Is the ratio of our arm span to our height really equal to 1?” See also: Teacher Lesson Plan and Leonardo’s Vitruvian Man.

**Negative Numbers**

“Among the earliest people to use negative numbers in calculations were the ancient Chinese.” See also: The History of Negative Numbers.

**Pascal’s Triangle**

Lessons and links for all grade levels. See also: All You Ever Wanted to Know About Pascal’s Triangle.

**Pi, a Very Special Number**

Over the centuries, mathematicians kept looking for better values for pi.

**Platonic Solids**

With printable nets, so you can make your own models. Part of the wonderful Maths is Fun site — take some time to explore!

**Pythagoras**

“Pythagoras believed that everything in the world could be explained by numbers.” See also: All Is Number.

**ThinkQuest History of Mathematics**

Brief overview of math history, with biographies of influential mathematicians and short online quizzes.

**Women in Maths**

“Ever wondered why stories about mathematicians always seem to be about men? …There were a few women who dared to go against the flow.”

[Back to Math History quicklinks.]

[Back to top.]

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Wow! Thanks for this incredible list! You rock!!!

Jamin

I suggest the TEX Users Group. If you want to type documents with mathematical equations, TEX is the only reasonable solution. Word processors with equation editors produce poorly-formatted pages, and they take the author out of the rhythm of writing.

Extraordinary!

Denise, you have saved all of us the countless hours of searching for some of the best of the web for math. Of course, we all recognize and appreciate the fact that this took you countless hours…

Dave

Thank you, Dave. It’s been a great help to me to have it all organized here, too, rather than trying to remember where in my jumbled collection of bookmark folders I stored some half-forgotten link to whatever.

The amazing thing is, I have already collected a new folder full of links to add to this page, whenever I find time to edit it again. There are so many great math pages on the Web! (And I think I will have to make a new category for math humor, too.)

Math Goodies is a free math help site that launched in 1998. Math Goodies was a pioneer of interactive math instruction and free math homework help. Today this award-winning site has over 500 pages of activities for students, educators and parents.

Hi,

You may be interested in these:

http://mixinginmath.terc.edu

http://athomewithmath.terc.edu

They are free informal math resources geared toward after-school programs and parents that have been funded by NSF.

Enjoy!

Nuria

You have done a good job, Denise! I better bookmark this list before I forget where it is!

I’m building a collection of worksheet makers (currently for kindergarten level, but moving into elementary), and I wonder whether you could take a moment to peek at my site, mathworksheetwizard.com, and consider putting it in your new folder full of links for the next time you edit this page? I hope some people will find it useful. All the best.

Well compiled list. You have included resources of almost all levels of Maths.

Hello, Our website is now free for a short period of time. Lots of videos.

http://www.mathtv.com

Thanks,

P

As a new teacher I find this site to be a phenomenal collection of resources! Thank you

Hello, please consider adding our new online calculator called eCalc to your list of math resources. It’s a great free online calculator and supports unit conversion, complex numbers, base conversion, and more.

eCalc Online Calculator

I wasn’t sure where to leave this comment since it wasn’t completely content-specific; I hope this isn’t too much of an intrusion.

I just want to share my puzzle website with you, http://www.webkendoku.com.

It is a place where you can play online KenKen games. According to Wikipedia, KenKen is logic and math puzzle developed by a Japanese mathematics teacher Tetsuya Miyamoto for the classroom.

Also, other math teachers have found it useful with their students.

Thank you for your time and again I hope this was not too much of an intrusion.

Cheers.

Here’s a description of a tool that helps students to learn about patterns and how they evolve out of the helix .

And here’s the direct link to the free resource: GENESIS ONE.2.

Just wondered if our free website would be of any use.

Thanks

Terry

Wow! You have a wealth of great resources on your site. I will definitely be going back to explore some more. And one of these days, when I find time to update my list, I will put your site in…

Here’s a FREE! math facts helper for all ages. I developed this for my children when I was homeschooling them. Hope you enjoy.

Web

Great collection of math links, thank you

Visit this website, I found it very useful for homeschooling for my kids. I teach to kids of mine and friends at home, this site really helped me, check it by your self http://www.mathebook.net

Math Diagnostic Test

http://www.pedagonet.com/maths/diagnostic.htm

Hi. Please evaluate my website and see if it can be included in your list. I would really appreciate if you include mine. Here’s the link:

http://math4allages.wordpress.com

Thank you for the link. You have several good posts on your blog! Have you considered submitting to the math blog carnivals? Here are the latest editions:

Math Teachers at Play

and

Carnival of Mathematics

You can send in a post for the next carnival using the blog carnival submission form.

Try these too

http://www.pedagonet.com/brain/donation.htm

@Denise

Thank you. I am really new to blogging, so I don’t really quite know about carnivals. Anyway, I have submitted an article.

Hi,

I am a math educator in India who runs his own website TotalGadha.com. The website provides math lessons on various topics and their applications in different contexts. The lessons are very relevant for learning and teaching of mathematics to high school students. Please have a look at the lessons by clicking on the following link:

http://totalgadha.com/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=6959

If you find our lessons useful, could you mention our website on your math resources page? We shall be highly obliged by your kind mention.

Thanks in advance,

Sanjeev Singh

On letsplaymath.wordpress.com I played brain twister and button beach challenge. They were really fun because in button beach challenge I had to figure out what each button was worth. In brain twister I had to answer questions. My friend played an adventure in number sense.

Why do you have ads on this site? How do you pick the ads? Why are some serious and others are funny?

Hi, 2010bulldogs! I am glad you enjoyed some of the games on my resource page. But I don’t think you quite understood the page. These games (and whatever ads come with them) are not on my site. I just have lots of links to lots of different websites all around the Internet.

I would like to suggest my Worksheet site. You have a great blog. Our Worksheets are really easy to create and print.

Free Math Worksheets from WorksheetFactory.net

Thank you!

I like you blog .Very Nice Blog.

Learn and See free math video tutorials at Free Math Tutorials

Denise,

Great Blog! I enjoying reading it.

I have a site that I would like for you to consider adding it to your resource list.

The site is free with no subscription fee.

Math-Aids.Com

http://www.math-aids.com

Math-Aids.Com is a free resource for teachers and parents. You can make an unlimited number of printable math worksheets for children, the classroom or homework practice.

Thanks for the consideration.

Mike

Hello,

I found here lots of well-written articles and math resources. Your blog is great!

I would like to introduce you our website: http://www.goldstudent.com

It is a fun, easy and effective online math enrichment and assistance program for students K-6. It is designed to help children improve their problem-solving skills, gain confidence in their math abilities and have fun while they learn.

Please tell us what do you think.

Thank you!

I looked at your goldstudent.com site, but I could not find anywhere on the site that you give the subscription price. This makes me doubtful about it. As my mom used to say,

“If you have to ask for the price, you probably can’t afford it.”At least you do offer a (very short!) free trial, so parents who are interested can try it out and see whether they think it will help their student.Hello Denise,

Thank you for looking at our site and thank you very much for your feedback.

The GoldStudent subscription price it’s $9.95 per month per child with 10% discount for 10 or more students. You can see the prince on the Educators top page, when you register as a parent or when you enroll as a teacher (http://goldstudent.com/GS_SiteLicense.aspx).

We will make the subscription fee more clear for our users.

Thank you again for your valuable feedback.

Hello Denise,

I would like to submit to your attention the scientific calculator on my website. It’s most important feature is that it treats all numbers as fractions, so, whenever possible, the result is shown as a fraction instead of a floating point number. It also features an editable history that allows to correct or modify previous expressions.

Customized functions to use in expressions can be created for repetitive calculations.

The address is:

http://www.alcula.com/calculators/scientific-calculator/

Hope you like it.

Many thanks for your consideration,

Giorgio

Thought you might want to know about our free math worksheets. Many people find them very useful:

http://www.teach-nology.com/worksheets/math/

Thanks for this list!

Another site for K-5 teachers is: http://www.k-5mathteachingresources.com

Subscription is free and the site includes a wide range of activities, math games, resources etc. based on the Common core state standards.

Thank you for the link! I especially like the information about mental math and using an empty number line.

a math animation and worksheet blog

http://mathsanimation.blogspot.com/

What a great list. Here is a worksheet that I created for you…

http://twistynoodle.com/coloring/letters-numbers-and-school-fun/numbers/lets-play-math-coloring-page/

You can change the text to create different math equations. It’s great for preschool and kindergartners.

Nicola @ Twisty Noodle

I would like to share a link.

Free collection of 1000 illustrated math challenges for grade 1 to grade 12 at

http://www.aplusclick.com/map.htm

Hello. Please take a look at my website and see if it can be included in your list.

http://www.mathconcentration.com Thank you!

Hello,

Would it be possible for me to have my maths puzzle website mention on your site as above.

You will be able to have a look at it from the information you need below.

If this is possible could you please advise me what I need to do or do you just set up the link?

I just want the whole world, eventually, to know about the puzzles i have devised, especially, ZYGO.

I hope you enjoy the puzzles if you go on the site.

Next week I am re visiting a primary school who did Zygo and Alcatraz puzzle challenges and gave me rave reviews in a questionnaire they completed. the teacher intends to do a photo shoot of the children doing ther puzzles on the website and sending an editorial up to the TES for publication.

I hope you can help.

Thank you.

Kind regards.

Les

Hi, Les!

I have a whole folder full of links I plan to add to this page someday, whenever I get around to having some free time. But for now, adding a comment (as you did) is the best way to promote your site.

PUZZLED?

goto

http://www.zygoplus.com

Just click on my name above to acces the site.

Please send your feedback.

It will be appreciated.

Thank you.

Les

Wow, this is an incredible list! It must have taken you forever to compile and check it. Thanks for doing all the hard work. I found these free math worksheets, one for quadratic equations and one for circles. The coefficients in the problems are randomly generated each time you click the button, so you get an endless supply of practice problems.

http://www.had2know.com/education/printable-quadratic-equations-math-worksheet.html

http://www.had2know.com/education/printable-circle-geometry-worksheets.html

Hello!

Great work!

Can you add my relevant site http://mathstricks.net/ in the collected list?

Nice collection.

http://www.edugain.com is another very good website for Math practice. Kids can either print the worksheets or solve the questions online. The website ensures that questions on this website are never repeated.

http://math-quiz.co.uk – lots of free math tests for gcse, a-level, foundation, university. Great resource to practice for math exams

This is an amazing collection of sites for math resources. I’m sure there plenty more. Check out http://www.icoachmath.com/ – a math content provider and learning platform since June 1999. There is content for Grades all the way from 3 to 12 mapped to the curriculum of each state. This site has a large trove of solved examples with detailed step-by-step solutions, even for advanced topics and lessons in Calculus.

A very useful comprehensive mathematics dictionary and glossary for students http://www.tuition.com.hk/mathematics/ Over 2000 terms and concepts defined with live linking.

You may be interested in http://www.youtube.com/user/GuruBix Maths lesson videos for free

Nisha

I would like to share http://www.flaslet.com unlimited online math practice and learning with algorithmically generated question and feedback.

Nice site. I’d like to add my site http://www.helpmewithmaths.net which has a number of cool math tricks on it. You can make a smoothie recipe from my other blog http://www.perfectfruitsmoothies.com to drink while you read if you like

Here I am pushing my site again – shameless I am. It is http://www.helpingwithmath.com/ My personal favorites are the worksheet generators http://www.helpingwithmath.com/resources/worksheet-generators.htm – well I liked making them anyway. I hope they are useful

David, I included one of your worksheet generators in my 20+ Things To Do with a Hundred Chart post, which is one of the most popular on the blog. I hope it brings you some traffic!

Great resource site! May I also recommend you a site with webcasts for students who need some extra help or for those who are homeschooled. http://themathstutor.com.au/

Here’s an online game that my kids love:

http://edu-games.atspace.com/

Math gorilla will teach them the 4 basic operations. Enjoy!

Splendid , i think this is best platform for every one.Online math practice is very beneficial for every one.We are providing online math game.i wanna discus on this topic so please reply me.Thanks for sharing this information.

These are some great resources.

You may want to check-out http://stemsheets.com

The website has some great new, free, worksheet and flash card makers.

I’m a new homeschool mom. Just stumbled across this! One word….THANKS!!!!!!!

Yeah it’s awesome,

-<http://online-math-academy.blogspot.com/ is another very good website for Math practice. Kids can either print the worksheets or solve the questions online

That is an exhaustive list. You may also visit teachmathfree.com for some good tips on vedic mathematics, mental maths etc.